We told you in our first blog what a __quantum computer__ is. Let us try to understand in a little more detail because you also know that recently the Government of India has talked about the investment of about __8,000 crores in quantum technology research__. For the first time, the Indian government is going to invest such a huge amount on the research of quantum technology. We were left behind in the industrial revolution, but now we don’t want to be left behind in the quantum revolution. Therefore, the Government of India has decided to invest. Our IT industry is a growing industry. Where the industry’s growth has stalled, its decline will begin. Initially the IT industry started developing its core. Initially, there was a 40-nano-meters processor. This was then reduced to 30-nano-meters. Then came at 22-nano-meters, then at 12-nano-meters but the size of the nano-meter we are using now is 7-nano-meters. If we now make a processor smaller than this size, then the laws of general physics begin to be broken.

The laws of physics have two environments. The first is the macro environment, which we also call the __Newtonian physic’s environment__, where everything happens on a large scale and the second is the __microscopic environment__. Where we talk about electrons, protons. Newtonian laws are not followed here. In this, we follow the laws of quantum physics and the rules and regulation of quantum physics are completely different from classical physics or Newtonian physics. So the problem with this is that if the processor is capable of intercepting electrons, only then it will continue to operate smoothly without any faults because if we talk about the end results of the processor then it only turns the electrons on or off. If we make a processor smaller than this, it can cause problems in stopping electrons. While moving, electrons can jump from one side to the other. This results in an increased probability of error. It is not that we cannot make processors smaller than this rather their prices will increase drastically and the chances of wrong results will also increase. Therefore there is a limit in classical physics, which cannot be broken. We can work around this. This is a default quantum law, which we cannot manipulate.

You already know that quantum computers work on superposition states. Now you can read my previous blog to know the __Superposition States__. If we talk about classical bits, they work on 0 or 1, it will either be 0 or 1 but their gimmick starts as soon as they arrive in quantum states. They work together on both states simultaneously and as we observe them, their wave function collapses and we want to use quantum technology only for superposition states because we do all the normal state tasks with the help of our classical computer. Wherever there seems to be the possibility of the availability of a myriad of results, it is almost impossible to test the results with the help of classical computers. For example, HIV aids. Those that go into the protection system of our DNA and change their functions and to prevent this altogether, we will need to test innumerable results, which we have not yet been able to do with the help of classical computers and currently, this situation is also of __COVID-19__. If we are able to make only vaccines of __COVID-19__, but cannot make a permanent drug, then this will be a part of the series of superposition states. The problem here is that we cannot maintain superposition states because their positions change as we see them because as soon as we send them to a circuit, their wave functions will collapse. So here the entire game is being done only to stay in their superposition states. Like our normal computer works on 0 and 1. Similarly, quantum computers work at infinite states between 0 and 1 at the same time and tell us the result and this is the advantage of superposition states.

Here now we talk about how we can save superposition states from collapsing. Because it is very easy to collapse superposition states. Raise the temperature or start observing, superposition states will collapse. To maintain superposition states we will need to keep the temperature around 0 Kelvin (-273.1°C). That is absolute 0 Kelvin only. Its thermal property is not collapsing due to the temperature being so low. It is the biggest game because it has thermal property all over the world, which wants to collapse from it. The processor in the picture shown below is not really that big. The processor is so small and efficient that it neither makes voice nor uses much power. In fact, all of these are simply coolers, which can keep the processor so cold that thermal property cannot collapse superposition states. Due to the problems of keeping it cool, it can neither come to our mobile phones nor on computers. They can only be used as server computers and that too with great difficulty.

Like if we talk about the DNA of our body, then we know what DNA is but we do not know about its behaviour. Just as a drug affects one body correctly, but does it at all, it is not necessary. A person can also be harmed because all these decisions are being made at the DNA level, which is part of the quantum property. Therefore, to understand it, it becomes necessary to understand the quantum property because we cannot detect shuttle behaviour from the atom behaviour of DNA because if we talk about the atom of an object, then atoms of all objects are different but if we talk about protons and electrons inside atoms, then by looking at them, we cannot tell which electron is of gold and which electron is of plastic because all types of objects present in the world have the same electrons. That is a quantum property. The quantum computer will help us a lot in the simulation world and it will become very easy to study at the quantum level.

Even in the case of encryption, we would find it very easy. While you know that no encryption is completely hacking proof. It just depends on how long the hackers will take to hack. Now we will benefit from the quantum computer in that it will make that hacking time even more because suppose a hacker takes 20 minutes to hack a classical computer. Now instead, if a hacker takes 200 years to break the encryption system of a quantum computer, no one would want to hack such a system. Another advantage is that high variability mathematics will be easier to solve. Now I will not tell you a lot about such mathematics, just understand that there are no such mathematical operations in which nothing is known. Everything runs on the basis of probability. And we don’t have any such computer right now. Large companies such as Google and IBM are testing only and only quantum research tools. A quantum computer will not be the best of everything compared to a classical computer. It is best for some things like __protein folding__, __DNA analysis__, super big data calculations where everything is variable.

**Quick links:**

__Budget 2020 | ₹8,000 crore outlay for national mission on quantum technology__

__Budget 2020 announces ____₹____8000 crore National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications__