Today, computers are playing an important role in our lives. Today’s computers are more small and compact than earlier computers, yet they have a limit. If we talk about its most important limitation, then it is – computing speed. Today, our computers seem unable to solve complex mathematical equations or say that it takes more time and consumes more energy as well. To eliminate this inefficiency, some companies have started working on quantum computers. Which we can call the computers of the future. Which we can call the computers of the future. So let’s know what a quantum computer is? and how does it differ from a binary computer?
What is a Quantum Computer?
Quantum computers are computers that use quantum beats or qubits to perform calculations. Now before moving on let us know what are cubits?
The computers we usually use, such as desktops, laptops, tablets, or smartphones, we also call them binary computers because their functionality is based on 0 or 1. Processors use transistors to perform any task in a binary computer. All transistors can be either ON state or OFF state. Where 1 represents ON state and 0 represents OFF state. I’ll not tell you much about binary function because you already know this. As you know what the next position is going to be in any program or algorithm on the computer, the computer decides it by 0 or 1. The amazing thing about computer programmers is that they make complex software like Microsoft, Adobe using only If, this, then, that, etc.
What are Qubits? Difference between Binary & Quantum Computer:
Although there are many interesting things to know about binary computers, the most important thing here is that 0 and 1 are the ones used to compute binary computers, we call them beats. Now if we talk about quantum computers, they used cubits to do calculations. Now if we compare between beats and cubits we will find that these cubits have an extra function which is not in beats. Actually, in the case of beats, the information exists only in 2 states, either 0 or 1. When logic is being developed, there are concepts of a developer-only like If, this, then, that, etc, it can only be in 0 or 1 at a time in one state but if we talk about cubits, then it exists in 3 states i.e. it can be in 0 at the same time or can be in 1 or can be in both. That is, the programmer can also use the concepts of both using If, this, then, that, etc. simultaneously, which greatly increases the speed of computation. Until we observe qubits, they can remain in all their possibilities, which are called spinning states.
Quantum Particles behavior:
If you are interested in quantum physics, you know that quantum particles behave differently when they are observed and when we don’t observe them, then they behave differently. You must have read about the double-slit experiment that when we observe quantum particles, they behave like a particle and when they are not observable, they behave like a web. In fact, it is because they are neither particles nor web. In fact, they appear as probabilities of all their states. Which we call web function. This means that at the same time they are particles and also web but as soon as we start observing them, their web function breaks down and selects a state and we see it.
Quantum computers use qubits to simulate behavior similar to quantum particles that exist in nature. Due to which their capacity increases manifold. How does this happen? Let us see an example.
Example of Qubits working concept:
When we spin a coin, after the spin, either the head comes or the tail. During a spin, all its possibilities are checked one by one and binary computers also work in a similar way. When the coin is spinning, it shows the final position by examining all its possibilities but quantum computers don’t work this way. While the coin is spinning, we don’t know if the head will come or the tail. That is, the coin is held simultaneously in both its states while spinning. Qubits are also present at the same time with all their possibilities. This means that by the time the binary computer starts checking the states of the coin, the quantum computer will give the result. This means that the quantum computer will check all the possibilities of the coin very quickly compared to the binary computer.
What Quantum Computers can do?
Let’s know what quantum computers can do. Which is beyond the capability of binary computers to achieve. Since quantum computers use qubits. So they can extract many solutions to a problem at the same time. Like binary computers, its result will not be dependent on the condition such that the test of the second condition can’t begin until the first condition is tested. A quantum computer will explore all possibilities independently at the same time. With the help of quantum computers, many activities like space exploration, complex chemical reactions, machine learning, artificial intelligence, big data will be faster than the present.
Security System related Issue:
But for now, our current security system is also under great threat from quantum computers because it will be easy to hack the existing security system by quantum computer because a quantum computer will have all the possibilities of a security system. Keeping this danger in mind, researchers are engaged in developing security systems that are quantum hacking proof but in the future, we will have quantum cryptographic systems that are almost impossible to hack.
The amazing potential of quantum computers is attracting many companies, but making them and working with them is not so easy at the moment. Due to observing, the states of qubits are changed and there is a lot of voice production on their use. That is, the more we use qubits, the more the chances of errors will increase and the second challenge is that most quantum computers have to be kept close to 0 degrees which is colder than space and they require more energy to function properly. That is, it costs a lot to operate a quantum computer, so it is not possible to use them extensively. Only companies like Google, IBM, Intel are working on these, but it is certain that Quantum Computers will play the main role in the future. If we talk about quantum supremacy, in 2012, John Preskill, who was a professor at California Institute of Technology, had told about that the things quantum computers can do, binary computers cannot and Google announced the Google Bristlecone Quantum Processor in 2018, In which, 72 qubits have been used. Before 2018, IBM created the Q-50 prototype Quantum Processor using 50 qubits. Google’s Bristlecone processor has attained the quantum supremacy and has surpassed the world’s fastest supercomputer currently.
Google Formally Claims to Have Achieved Quantum Supremacy:
Google has claimed that it has achieved quantum supremacy. Google has only proven that quantum computers will play a more effective role in the field of research and development than classic computers. In fact, Google created an equation sequence of many complex Mathematics equations to calculate a Hi-Tech Classical Supercomputer and a Quantum Computer, in which Classical Supercomputers needed 10,000 years to calculate that equations and Quantum Computer Calculated in just 200 seconds and gave the result.